Xuchang is one of the oldest continuous nations on Tei-Su, with its origins in the founding of Xuchang city by the Xun family in 16,101 AD though archaeological record indicates inhabitation across the area of the modern Xuchang state long before that.
Over time Xuchang's borders have grown and shrunk, and for the last several thousand years have remained constant. Encompassing 167,000 square kilometers and with a population just below one hundred million Xuchang is one of the largest member-states on Tei-Su.
The Xun family has overseen both the pre-Federal nation and the Federal member-state without interruption for over 7,000 years. While aloof from local politics, for the last thousand years or so, Xuchang has been exceptionally proactive in seeking stronger and more prosperous relations with other Federal member-states. This has resulted in an immensely vibrant and strong economy and also in Xuchang having some of the largest immigrant populations on Tei-Su.
Xuchang remained strictly neutral in the decade long Jin-Mei Civil War despite extensive and sometimes aggressive pressure to force them to choose a side.
There is little archaeological evidence for when the area of the modern Xuchang state was colonised, as with most sites on Tei-Su. Some scholars have used the limited fragments to suggest that Xuchang was one of the first areas settled on Tei-Su, pointing to its especially verdant and pleasant environment as further evidence of its likelihood. However, there is no consensus on this conjecture. The only agreed upon fact being that the area was inhabited prior to the Xun family's foundation of Xuchang city.
Founding of Xuchang
The historical reality of the founding of Xuchang is something long lost to history, though arguably the myth is far more important for the Xu people today.
According to the legend the various scattered settlements lived along the banks of the Pearl Water River, however none were able to prosper as the floods of the river were always too strong and would wash away their farms. Xun Gao, the leader of one of the villages, proposed that they come together into one settlement upon a hill near where the river emptied into a large lake. The various leaders of the villages argued that while this would save their homes it would not do anything for their farms. Xun Gao responded that by working together the larger population could create a series of dams to slow the river's flow and raise embankments along its sides. This argument eventually persuaded the people of the villages. The settlement came to be called Xuchang, Xu being the main character from Xun Gao's name and chang meaning 'rising' in the then Ji dialect.
The founding is still celebrated annually with a large festival which features delegations from all the towns of Xuchang state coming to Xuchang city to symbolically rebuild the city once more.
Xuchang Grows & Looks Outward
Over the following centuries the city's location along a major river of the largest continent of Tei-Su and situated in a flood plain saw it grow rapidly. Outlying villages and even larger towns naturally came to use Xuchang as a focal point for trade, and the leaders struck up agreements to provide regular grain in return for protection. Noticeably Xuchang and its surrounding region (what would become Xuchang state) contained only Jin-Mei people. This provided a greater cultural unity than elsewhere on Tei-Su where Jin-Mei settlements were often closely surrounded by other cultures.
The fifth King, Xun Zi, used economic pressure and the threat of isolation to bring the entire region of Xuchang under his sole authority by 16,181 AD. Xun Zi was instrumental in outlining and formalising the structure of government and society in the Kingdom of Xuchang - namely adopting the caste system. Many historians consider the success of his heir, Xun Zhi, a direct result of the internal reforms and the strong economic condition he left his kingdom in.
Xun Zhi was the first, and arguably the most successful, King of Xuchang. Xun Zhi is most famously remembered for his, at the time, unequaled military campaigns and the rapid expansion of the Kingdom of Xuchang. Building off of his father's reforms, and the natural geography of Xuchang, Zhi launched over a fifty campaigns during his thirty year reign that brought just over 1.2 million square kilometers (480,000 square miles) under the authority of the Kings of Xuchang. Zhi instituted a policy of assimilating Jin-Mei populations, and initially only removing and displacing other cultures, in the areas brought into the kingdom's authority. However, during his twelfth campaign Xuchang forces suffered a major defeat at the hands of a combined force of these exiles. Zhi immediately reversed his previous policy and ordered the extermination of any non Jin-Mei populations his armies encountered. This policy, not unique amongst the fledgling Jin-Mei states, allowed for an unprecedented security and internal unity by creating a mono-culture.
The two reigns of Xun Zi and Xun Zhi marked the beginning of the Kingdom of Xuchang's primacy in Tei-Su politics, and would set the tone for nearly two thousand years of rulers.
Zhi's Successors & the Zenith of the Kingdom of Xuchang
By 16,400 AD the Xun family had overseen a gradual expansion of the Kingdom, capitalising on the position Xun Zhi had left the kingdom in they had sought to bring various other kingdoms, duchies, and all manner of fiefdoms into their domain. The Jin-Mei were now the sole people across the entirety of Tei-Su, Xun Zhi's policies had done their work successfully over the two millennia since his reign.
Now spanning just over 3 million square kilometers (over 115,000 square miles) and with a population of fifty million the Kingdom of Xuchang was contending for the position of hegemonic power on the planet. It's currency, the Dan or "stones" so named after the smooth pebbles that were first taken from the Three Stars Lake and used as currency, was a major currency of trade. The kingdom had become a center of Jin-Mei culture, literature, art, and philosophy. A harsh legalist code of laws ensured that internal strife was unknown, and that the average citizen enjoyed an unprecedented amount of peace and security.
The unprecedented period of peace lead also to a flurry of historical research and mythologising by the scholars of the Kingdom of Xuchang; ranging from academic pieces that would form the core for not only historical research into the kingdom even till today, but also to popular works of theatre and poems that were aimed at the wider audience of the kingdom. The complete security of the capital of Xuchang meant that most of these records remained intact till today, taxes and crop yields as far back as 16,000 AD can still be researched.
Its expansion however had ground to a halt as the neighbouring states no longer were small and relatively simple targets for a military campaign. Either through a system of alliances or by virtue of their difficult geography (mountains or thick jungle) the Kingdom of Xuchang had failed consistently to bring these lands under its banner. The impact of these failed campaigns would come to a head in 18,307 AD.
Twin Brothers War
By the forty-fourth King of Xuchang, Xun Ai, these continued failed attempts to expand Xuchang's borders had drained the treasury and depleted the land of young men. The kingdom began to stagnate and experience extensive corruption in its vast royal bureaucracy. The final straw in the kingdom's fortunes was the refusal of the Dan as a currency of trade across Tei-Su, the economic collapse that took place in the kingdom after this was almost total.
Xun Ai, who by this time was an ailing and ancient monarch at eighty-eight, had twin sons: Xun Chang & Xun Cheng. These two brothers appealed to their father to abdicate so that they might restore the might and majesty of Xuchang. However, they proposed dramatically distinct policies going forward: Xun Chang thought that the failures reflected a weakness in the state that could only be cured in the crucible of war, famously commenting "War is as natural to man as child birth is to woman." His brother, Xun Cheng, meanwhile advocated that it was over extension and a crumbling imperialist edifice that had to be done away with in order for the kingdom to flourish. Sadly King Ai passed away before he could pronounce which of the twins would succeed him - though Chang was the elder by a few seconds.
Xun Cheng however was unwilling to accept his brother's rule, and had gathered a large number of Sang Do behind him. So began the Twin Brothers War, a seminal moment in the conscious of Xuchang and still inspires plays and operas to this day. The war would last nearly a century and was continued by the sons of Xun Chang and Xun Cheng, Xun Yan and Xun Wu respectively.
The chaos of the war cost over five million lives, and laid waste to much of the territory of the kingdom - entire cities were razed out of existence during the war. The war also resulted in a dramatic loss of territory for the kingdom as neighbours seized the opportunity to take land from the ailing state, and various Sang Do lords that had served the Kings of Xuchang declared their independence. The Twin Brothers War is a popular subject for poets and playwrights in Xuchang, both contemporary to its events and since, indeed many of the great classics deal either directly with the war or use it as a backdrop. In recent years there has been a resurgence in interest in this type of literature, and many modern authors are using the stories of these plays and poems to present allegories of the woes of modern Tei-Su - and beyond.
Eventually at the age of twenty-three Xun Yan died of a nosebleed without issue, and though several Sang Do attempted to claim the title of King of Xuchang through extended relations or marriage; Xun Wu was successful in seeing off all opposition and was declared the forty-fifth King of Xuchang. His first edict was the official striking of the reigns of Xun Chang and his Xun Yan from the record.
Xuchang Turns Inward
Xun Wu's second act sent ripples across Tei-Su and marked the end of an era for the Xu people: the Kingdom of Xuchang was no more, setting aside the title of king Xun Wu became the first Duke of Xuchang in 18,401 AD. Formally renouncing any claim over the now lost territories of the Kingdom of Xuchang and retreating into the heartland of the Xu people around Xuchang.
The new Duke's forty-four year reign focused on massive infrastructure projects to reinvigorate the decimated heartland of Xuchang. Dams were rebuilt, roads repaved, watch-towers restored, the walls of Xuchang reinforced, public funds were used to restore damages to farms and villages across the duchy, amongst only a small selection of Wu's projects. While Wu's projects concerned the Sang Do who had supported his claim, as it drained the already diminished coffers of the duchy, he enjoyed unprecedented popularity amongst the Saan Go and Jing Ko. Fortunately for Wu's internal focus the open retreat and abandonment of the kingdom left a power vacuum that Xuchang's neighbours spent much of his reign squabbling to fill. By the time a few realms had emerged in a position to challenge Xuchang they faced a duchy which for the first time in nearly three centuries was truly unified and reinvigorated.
Xun Wu, the first Duke of Xuchang, passed away in the winter of 18,445 AD at the age of sixty nine the most beloved and admired ruler of the Xu people since Xun Zhi or Xun Gao. Wu's successors would follow his example and focus on inner perfection, the vast natural resources of Xuchang no longer trickling away into a vast imperial bureaucracy and thrown away on military campaigns allowed the duchy to develop rapidly. Of all the historical record the reign of Xun Wu, and his successors as dukes, has been the most completely digitised and is readily accessible throughout the Federation. During negotiations to join the Federation Xun Shu, the current duke, gifted the University of Caille with one of the oldest copies of: Of Heaven, Earth, and Man. A treatise written by Xun Wu detailing his reforms, projects, and also his wishes for his people: "Glory in no victory that is not won except by dexterity and goodness and without bloodshed."
Emerging into the industrial and post-industrial ahead of most other realms on Tei-Su, and long before most other peoples in New Eden, Xuchang continually improved and modernised its state. While other states waxed and waned with military campaigns and drained manpower and resources, Xuchang was spared the expense and cost to both treasury and populace. The Xun family assiduously preserved Xuchang's neutrality through a complex web of marriages and adoptions, there was almost no Sang Do family of note that they did not have some form of kinship with. When this failed to be a deterrent, and there were several times were an alliance of Sang Do attempted to usurp the populated and wealthy Xuchang, enemies faced a united, strong, and entrenched people and military. By the time the Jin-Mei began their first attempts at space travel Xuchang was considered untouchable.
The Jin-Mei's expansion into space was supported by the Xun family, and many of the most influential nuyin involved were based in Xuchang - enjoying an almost unequaled level of patronage and security to pursue their research. However, the Xun family declined to establish any colonies and even the extended Xun family did not make moves to take up new titles off-world. Many Jin-Mei considered this was a sign that stagnation had begun to set in amongst the rulers of Xuchang, the contact with the Federation however would dramatically put to rest these thoughts.
Diyichiu & the Federal Era
Whether Xuchang was to succumb to stagnation over time, as many inward looking nations inevitably do, however was never answered as the arrival of the Federation changed the face of all of Tei-Su forever. When the Sang Do leadership met for discussions over whether to join the Federation they were astounded to see the young Xun Shu, recently crowned Duke of Xuchang. The expectation had been that Xuchang would remain neutral and simply follow the consensus of the other Sang Do.
However, Xun Shu became one of the most vocal advocates for signing the Federal Charter - indeed during the year long debate he was rarely in Xuchang, travelling far and wide to lobby reticent Sang Do to affirm their support or change their position. Shu has never publicly commented as to why he was so firmly for admission to the Federation, but the dramatic increase in trade flowing through Xuchang has lead many to suggest that he correctly saw the enormous economic benefits membership would bring.
The necessary changes to Xuchang society as a result of signing the Charter has caused less disruption than elsewhere in Mei-Ha according to a University of Caille study. The long-standing neutrality, popularity of the Xun family, and economic prosperity of Xuchang have all been cited as explaining this. Xuchang while utilising the opt out clauses and retaining the caste system allowed mobility between the castes sooner than elsewhere in Mei-Ha which is also credited with ensuring the survival of the traditional authority of the Xun family. Combined with wide-ranging social welfare schemes, increased public works, open immigration policies, and low barriers to trade all further improved the wealth and prosperity of all in Xuchang - all ensured the Xun family continued to be held in high esteem. A visiting Federal Senator from Luminaire commented that Xun Shu was one of the most shrewd and daring statesmen in the Federation, who most importantly understands his limits and never pushes past them.
The continuing war with the Caldari State little troubled Xuchang, though they did uniquely register no objections to a Federal Navy recruitment center opening in Xuchang city. Many Senators of the period regarded Xuchang, and the Xun family, as the staunchest supporters of the Federal idea amongst the Jin-Mei people. An image further reinforced by Xuchang rarely opening trade to nations outside the Federation, nor accepting tenders for its franchises from any non-Federal organisation. Fortunately the sheer vibrancy of the Federal economy means this has done little to harm Xuchang's development within the Federation.
Xuchang city was classified as a Beta-class city in 23,190 AD, a mere twenty years after the Jin-Mei were discovered, the classification was a matter of national pride for Xuchang being amongst the first Jin-Mei cities to achieve the status and a sign of its newly reinvigorated purpose and place. Previously, as with all cities on Tei-Su, Xuchang city had been a Gamma-class city.
By the Yoiul Conference in 23,236 AD or YC 0 Xuchang had cemented itself as one of the most multi-cultural, developed, vibrant, and progressive member-states in Tei-Su. Xun Shu, in YC 118 he is 190 years old, is widely hailed as one of the fathers of the Jin-Mei people as a Federal identity and for the Xu people he is regarded as fondly as Xun Gao or Xun Wu. Xun Shu was instrumental in maintaining Xuchang's neutrality in the Jin-Mei Civil War, alone of the member-states on Tei-Su, heralded by many in the Federation as a sign that in his old age the Duke has lost none of his political foresight.
Xuchang is divided into 17 prefectures, not including the city of Xuchang which is administered directly by the government of Xuchang, and below these prefectures are 159 counties. Each county is further subdivided into townships - there 2455 townships in Xuchang.
Historically the prefectures were ruled by a Sang Do prefect, unlike the feudal systems that many in the Federation are more aware of the office of Prefect was not automatically passed down a family. Rather upon the death of a Prefect his sons had to present themselves to the Dukes of Xuchang and would then plead their case to inherit over their brothers or another Sang Do. In the modern era Prefects are still appointed and serving a similar role to a premier or governor in other Federal member-states. As the appointments are approved by the Chamber of Xuchang they remain under the ultimate authority of the people, thereby not violating the Federal Charter or Constitution.
The counties are administered by an Assistant, or Cheng, who is from the Saan Go caste. These officials are appointed by the Prefect the county is under the authority of, however the Chamber of Xuchang and the Duke reserve the right to appoint Assistants at will - this is rarely if exercised.
|No.||Name||Prefecture capital||Counties||Area (km2)||Population|
Landscape and climate
Xuchang has a diverse landscape with floodplains in the east around Three Stars Lake and along the length of the Pearl Water River, and one of the largest mountain ranges on Tei-Su to the west. Renowned for its plains the eponymous Western Mountains provided Xuchang with a secure western border during its early history almost unique on Tei-Su. Temperate deciduous forests cover those areas of Xuchang not given over to either population centres or farming. At the farthest eastern edge of Xuchang the Pearl Water River passes through the Yellow Plateau, an area of land that is renowned for its friable qualities.
Xuchang's climate is roughly divided into northern and southern zones of climate, the Pearl Water River providing an almost perfect dividing line between the two zones. The northern zone is humid continental: a zone typified by extreme seasonal temperature differences, and precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. The southern humid subtropical zone has: has humid summers and mild winters, and is particularly pronounced around the bodies of water in Xuchang.
The average mean temperature of Xuchang throughout summer is 27-28 °C and drops to a mean of -3 °C during winter.
Xuchang is one of the megadiverse member-states on Tei-Su, a remarkable feature given the enormous and well-preserved (compared to the wider Federation) biodiversity of all areas on Tei-Su. Xuchang has over 50,000 individual species of animals and vascular plants. New species however are still being discovered and recorded constantly. All species are recorded and have their genetic material stored, as per a Ducal edict originating from Xuchang's modern era. This has allowed Xuchang to reintroduce species which through human interaction have gone extinct without any difficulty.
Perhaps the most famous animal, and almost synonomous with Xuchang amongst Jin-Mei, is the King's Phoenix. These birds average over one metre from bill to true tail, and over two metres if their elaborate and multicoloured train of covert feathers. Females of the species lack the multicoloured train. The King's Phoenix is depicted on the coat of arms of the Xun family, and thus serves as the seal of the member-state of Xuchang also.
The Xun family still enjoys unrivaled popularity amongst the citizens of Xuchang and are popularly viewed as the steadying hand and guiding mind behind the state. A recent survey of the popular feelings towards the Xun family by the University of Caille found that 93% of Xu thought the Xun family was a positive and essential aspect of Xuchang. This is reflected in that even with the advent of democratic government most citizens appeal to the Duke or another member of the Xun family rather than their elected representative; who will then address the matter for them in the Chamber of Xuchang.
Apart from the Duke of Xuchang the members of the Xun family also fill other important offices of state, including Chief of the Xuchang Self-Defence Force (traditionally given to the heir apparent) among many others, these positions are not merely ceremonial. The Duke of Xuchang and the heir apparent are also each granted a seat in the Chamber of Xuchang, and while both have voting rights traditionally the Duke will only cast a vote to break a tie. However, the Chamber of Xuchang has responded to criticism around this matter by pointing out that while these offices of the executive branch fall to the Xun family they are subject to direction and instruction from the popularly elected legislative branch. In this way the Xun family, who have extensive experience in the fields of government, operate almost as the bureaucracy and public servants of Xuchang - of course this has not silenced all criticism from the wider Federation.
All government property is legally the property of the Duke, and given the almost sacrosanct position the Duke and the Xun family hold in Xuchang, this has lead to a rather lower incidence of damage and defacement to public property than in other Beta-class cities. Some criticism has been leveled at the Xun family for such a concentration of property and public lands into their hands, with the strongest voices stating this amounts to a tyranny over the state. However, crucially none of these critics come from Xuchang or Tei-Su itself and most Xu (and indeed Jin-Mei) people dismiss this as a cultural misunderstanding at best - or cultural imperialism at worst.
A recent report on the Xun family for the FedGov stated "The Xun family enjoy a level of popular support and adoration that politicians across the Federation would kill for, should the monarchy be abolished today it is beyond a doubt that they would be immediately elected to whatever office was created or should no office be created that they would through social and cultural influence dominate the political life of the direct democracy. Elected officials are viewed as partisan, self-serving, and bound to follow the whims of the people - a term used negatively by individuals from all castes in Xuchang - whereas the Xun family are seen as above the petty politics of the day and actively working towards a large plan. The current Duke, Xun Shu, and his heir, Xun Yu, seem to give great proof of this popular sentiment."
Xuchang's government was designed by Xun Shu in the lead up to the signing of Federal Charter, and the Duke's early preparation ensured a smoother transition than elsewhere amongst the new Jin-Mei member-states. While the Duchy of Xuchang has three separate branches of government the Xun family has an official role in each, and their position as the effective executive of the Duchy of Xuchang means that there is little separation of powers. Further the Duchy lacks a constitution governed instead by common law and precedence, sometimes dating as far back as to the earliest days of the Duchy. Laws from the era of the kingdom are sometimes referenced however must judges dismiss them as being no longer relevant according to the edict of Xun Wu - which "abrogated all the rights and laws of the Kingdom of Xuchang except those We choose to preserve in our person for the Duchy of Xuchang."
The Duke serves as both head of state, head of government, and chief justice though traditionally the last two roles he will pass to his heir and another son respectively. There was some speculation that Xun Shu might appoint one of his daughters to the position of chief justice, however with the appointment of Xun Ao silenced any thought that the Duke might be signalling an increasing liberalisation.
The Chamber of Xuchang is the unicameral legislature of the Duchy, and consists of 161 members: one for each county and the two seats for the Duke and his heir. The Chamber passes all laws, approves the appointment of Xun family members to various positions, and supervises the work of government. The legislature is predominantly made up of Sang Do, with many members descended from the old Prefects that had governed under the Xun family since the time of the Kingdom. Elected members of the Chamber are elected for a three year term, and the party with the most seats in the Chamber forms the 'Renmen di Shi' (literally 'the people's thing) or government.
The courts of Xuchang are divided by responsibility with a High Court, Criminal Court, and Civil Court. Judges are appointed to all courts with the approval of the Chamber of Xuchang, and the Duke serves as the Chief Justice of the High Court - though this position is usually handed over to one of his sons.
While the system fulfills the requirements of Federal law the prevalence of the Xun family in official roles throughout all levels of government, and in non-ceremonial roles, has raised some concerns throughout the wider Federation. However, all criticism has been met with a full throated rejection from the Xu people and the successive elected governments have reiterated their complete faith in and support for the present system.
As with all representative democracies within the Federation there are diverse number of political parties representing local ideological and political positions, some of which choose to affiliate with a large District or Federal political party. All political parties in Xuchang require the approval of the Duke of Xuchang, though this is mostly a mere formality as the current Duke has shown no desire to limit political participation. Political parties in Xuchang tend to refer back to the Xu tradition of showing caste and office via embroidered squares of fabric worn on the chest both via their names, i.e. Black Squares, and also in using such squares in their party symbolism.
The largest political parties in Xuchang are:
|Name||Leader||Founded||Headquarters||Membership (YC118)||Federal Affliates||Ideology|
|Black Squares||Julian Gao||23,174 AD||Xuchang city||446,859||Social Democrats (Sociocrats)||Center-left|
|Brown Squares||Apaec Tsao||23,174 AD||Xuchang city||445,534||Progressive Party (Progressors)||Center-right|
|White Squares||Zhi Zhu||23,180 AD||Ao||145,000||N/A||Right|
|Orange Squares||Willem Lo||YC 1||Xuchang city||58,989||Social Democrats (Sociocrats)||Left|
|Silver Squares||Twain Aumer||YC 0||Biyan||2,014||Unionists||Center-right|
The oldest political parties, originating with the signing of the Federal Charter by Duke Xun Shu, are the Black and Brown Squares. The Black Squares compromised the majority of the Sang Do in the new member-state, whose sense of noblesse oblige easily found a home in the socially minded policies of the Sociocrats. Historically this party has held more Renmen di Shi than any other. The Brown Squares by contrast was founded by the more rural or lower Sang Do and Saan Go, whose position was less established. They soon found the rugged individualism of the Progressors in line with their ambitions. This party has the highest number of women of any political party in Xuchang.
The White Squares were formed after a split from the Black Squares over the matter of further reforms and democratization. In a widely remembered political statement the members of the Black Squares who opposed further reform turned their squares over to show the white back, a signing of mourning for the loss of Xu history and opposition to their former party.
The Orange Squares emerged with the height of Aidonis Elabon's popularity across the Federation, though they have suffered in the polls since Elabon's passing they continue to espouse and advocate his legacy. This has sometimes put them at odds with their Federal affiliate, the Sociocrats, as they have come more in line with Blaqueist ideology.
The Silver Squares were formed by the first Minmatar immigrants to Xuchang, during the great wave of immigration post-rebellion, and has yet to win a seat in the Chamber of Xuchang. However, political commentators have mentioned the heir's husband may signal the rallying point that the party needs to break into Xu politics.
The 159 elected members of the Chamber of Xuchang are elected using a plurality voting method within castes. Each elected member represents a single county of Xuchang, and must reside in that county in order to be eligible. During an election all citizens who are over 16 years of age and not presently serving a criminal sentence are eligible to vote and stand for office.
In each county voters are grouped according to one of the three major castes: Sang Do, Saan Go, and Jing Ko. A successful candidate must win the majority support from the castes, e.g. they must win two of the three castes. The vote of the castes are determined by counting the votes of the members of that caste, within the county, and the candidate who receives the plurality of votes wins the caste.
Members of the Chamber of Xuchang, officially Chamberlains, are elected for five year terms with half the chamber up for reelection at any one time.
Xuchang has diplomatic relations with all member-states within the Ysiette district, and with a further 608 member-states throughout the Federation, and maintains embassies in all. Xuchang has taken to the Federal economy and Federal politics with greater zeal than most other Jin-Mei member-states - which are well known for their enthusiastic participation within the wider Federation. Xuchang keeps particularly close ties with Mannar member-states; a historical tie given the Mannar peoples' discover of the Jin-Mei as well as a practical one, the peoples of the Jin-Mei and Mannar member-states share similar political outlooks.
Xuchang's foreign relations are underpinned by the 'An essay: The Twin Heavens Principles'. This essay, by the heir apparent Xun Yu, examined both the treaties that predated Xuchang's ascension to the Federation and the rationale which informed its signing of the Federal Charter. Using this analysis the heir apparent articulated the guiding principles of Xuchang foreign policy:
"Being desirous of promoting trade, cultural intercourse, and democratic government we must resolve to enter into no agreement that isn't based on the following principles:
(1) mutual respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty,
(2) mutual non-aggression,
(3) mutual non-interference in internal affairs,
(4) equality and mutual benefit, and
(5) peaceful co-existence."
There has been widespread debate on whether these principles are meant to be applied beyond the Federation, given Xuchang's disinclination to engage with any non-Federal entity it is generally considered that they do not. Especially evidenced in the YC 112 law making it illegal for any franchise to be sold to a non-Federal organisation or entity.